Greenscape Roses

Roses are one of the most beautiful flowers in nature. Creating a truly spectacular rose garden takes some planning, selection, proper preparation, correct planting techniques and care. Roses grow best when they receive a minimum of six hours of bright sunlight. Morning sun is preferred to afternoon sun. Morning sun helps dry leaves quickly, thereby reducing disease problems. Afternoon sun in midsummer is stressful to the plant.

SOIL

Roses produce the best growth in soil high in organic matter. For best results create a raised bed or berm. This promotes good drainage which is a prerequisite for roses. Remove six to twelve inches of soil in the planting area and backfill with quality topsoil blended with 50% compost. Add ten pounds of superphosphate for every 100 square feet of garden area. Thoroughly blend the “garden mix” with the superphosphate.

SELECTION

Roses have universal appeal. Their beauty and delicate fragrance is unsurpassed. Roses are well adapted to many different environmental conditions. They are useful for cut flowers and for their landscape appeal. They are the product of centuries of breeding; many shapes, forms and colors provide countless selections.

You normally get what you pay for. If you want a bargain, go to the mass discount stores. If you want quality, buy from an independent garden center. Greenscape Gardens sells only quality roses. Many of the roses we sell are from Pennsylvania. Do you want a cold hardy plant which will produce quality roses or an inferior plant? We prefer to sell container grown plants which can be planted throughout the growing season.

Roses are available in an unlimited variety of selections for almost any situation. Hybrid tea, floribunda and grandiflora are the most commonly planted types. These require a rather vigorous pest control program to maintain them in a healthy, productive condition. Shrub roses require little or no pest control. Once they are established they grow and flower for years with very little attention.

Hybrid Tea Rose 

The most popular rose is definitely the hybrid tea rose. It is a cross between hybrid perpetuals and the tea rose imported from China in the 18th century. The flowers are large and many are fragrant. Plants are vigorous, but require substantial care to properly maintain.

Shrub Rose 

The term "shrub rose" is often given to a miscellaneous group of species, hybrids and varieties. They are a hardy group of roses with a wide range of flower forms and colors.

There are many uses for shrub roses in the landscape, as a shrub border, a screen, as a accent plant, or even in foundation plantings. They compete better with other shrubs than hybrid teas. Most are heavy feeders and tolerate a wide range of soil conditions. Shrub roses have greater disease resistance than hybrid teas.

SPACING

In the St. Louis area, we suggest the following spacing. Hybrid tea roses should be spaced three feet apart. Shrub roses should be planted at three feet spacing. Climbing roses need eight feet of space.

 

PLANTING CONTAINER GROWN PLANTS

Dig a hole about 50% larger than the diameter of the container. The plastic container must be removed carefully to reduce potential root damage. Plant the rose one inch higher than the growing height in the pot. Settling may occur and it’s actually better to plant higher than too low. Loosely backfill the plant and thoroughly water the area to reduce any air pockets plus moistening the tender roots. 

Roses are one of the world's most popular flowers. Their beauty and delicate fragrance have universal appeal. Roses are well adapted to many different environmental conditions. They are useful for cut flowers and many landscape effects. Since they are the product of centuries of breeding and selection, many shapes, forms and colors provide endless selection to choose from and use.
The numerous types of roses available offer selections for any situation. Hybrid tea, floribunda and grandiflora are the most commonly planted types. These require a rather vigorous pest control program to maintain them in a vigorous, productive condition. Shrub roses require little or no pest control. Once they are established they grow and flower for years with very little attention.

There are countless types of roses. Greenscape Gardens purchases “Star Roses” which are from the Northeast. They are winter hardy vs. roses which are grown in California or southern locales. For a full listing of Greenscape Gardens Roses go to our website page titled 2004 Roses for a brief description including type, color, bloom and size.

 

CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF ROSES

Roses are definitely one of the most beautiful flowers in nature but they can be a high maintenance plant. Roses need to be properly watered, mulched, pruned, fertilized, in addition to fungus and insect control applications.

“Don’t grumble that roses have thorns, be thankful that thorns have roses.”
Author Unknown

WATERING

Keep the roots damp but never over-saturate with standing water. Add water when the soil is dry in the upper 1 to 2 inches. Thorough, deep watering is important! Avoid light surface waterings. Water should be applied slow enough to prevent surface runoff and long enough to ensure deep soil penetration. A water meter will aid in applying the correct amount of water.

TO PREVENT POSSIBLE FUNGUS PROBLEMS, AVOID WATERING THE FOLIAGE. WATER THE ROOT ZONE.

Wet foliage promotes the spread of black spot. Keep the foliage dry as much as possible. Watering in the morning or early in the afternoon is preferred. This eliminates the potential for fungus problems since the foliage will be dry by the evening. The use of a drip irrigation system in rose beds is the best form of watering.

MULCHING

Roses benefit from a mulch placed over the bed or around individual plants. This will aid in the retention of water around the root system and reduce weed infestations. Install the mulch at a depth of 2-3 inches.

FERTILIZATION

Roses require nutriment for maximum performance. Established roses need additional fertilization to maintain their vigor. If the soil has been properly prepared for planting, utilize either inorganic or organic fertilizers to feed the rose. A combination of inorganics and natural organics provides the best results. Inorganics are quick reacting and more concentrated. Organics are more slowly available and contribute fertility over a longer period of time. Greenscape Gardens recommends the Fertilome Rose Food with systemic insectide with a balanced fertilizer ratio of 14-12-11. Follow the manufacturer’s label directions when applying. Water the fertilizer thoroughly after the application.

The first application should be given in spring after danger of severe freeze is past. Additional applications should be made about every two to three weeks. Don't fertilize after mid August. It is best to reduce fertility in the fall to help harden the plants for winter.

Other forms of organic fertilization include the use of bone meal and blood meal. Bone meal is a valuable source of slow-release phosphorus. It should be mixed into the soil since it does not move down readily with watering. Use about 1 heaping tablespoon per plant.

Blood meal is another source of organic nitrogen. Generally, 1 level tablespoon applied around each plant is sufficient.

“Life with love will have some thorns, but a life without love will have no roses.”
Author Unknown

PRUNING

Roses need to be properly pruned to enhance flower production. It is also necessary to remove old canes from the plants on a regular basis. Roses need to be thoroughly pruned in the early spring and lightly in late fall.

Important pruning requirements for all roses:

  • Remove all dead wood.
  • Remove any wood that is diseased, broken or injured in any way.
  • Remove any basal shoots on budded plants that are different from the main plant.
  • Remove branches that rub on other branches.
  • Prune to improve the shape of the plant.
  • Prune to provide good air movement through and around the plant.
  • Make cuts slightly above a strong bud that faces the outside of the plant.
  • Make all cuts clean and smooth by using sharp pruning shear.
  • Properly prune spent flowers to the first branch of five leaves.

Pruning Notes:

  • Prune the rose in the fall half way back but not less than 18 inches from the soil.
  • Use a sharp pruning shear to create a clean cut. Jagged cuts harm the plant.
  • Old canes must be removed close to the base in early spring. 

“Always take time to stop and smell the roses.”
Author Unknown, and commonly quoted

 
WINTER PROTECTION

Protect your valuable roses with a covering of mulch in late fall. Create a pyramid of loose mulch around the base of the rose when the plant has gone dormant. Early November is usually the preferred time for this fall chore. Don't use leaves, grass clippings, manure or materials that would remain wet or rot around the canes and promote disease. Evergreen branches or straw placed over the mounds will give additional protection.

Many old-fashioned, shrub and ramblers are extremely hardy and need little or no winter protection. The hybrid tea floribunda, grandiflora and climbing hybrid tea roses may be injured during severe winters. For this reason, some protection is necessary to ensure their survival. 

Proper summer care creates a healthier plant for over-winter protection. A vigorous growing plant is much more capable to withstand cold than one in a weakened condition. Choosing cold hardy plants in the selection process will ensure better winter hardiness.

Carefully remove the covering in spring after danger of severe freeze is over. Don't be too anxious to remove it as the soft, tender shoots that develop beneath it are easily killed by light freeze. Keep some straw or mulch material handy to cover plants in case of late frost.

“God gave us our memories so that we might have roses in December”.
J.M. Barrie

PEST CONTROL

There are many pests which frequent the rose. They are easily controlled by products sold by your local garden center but the key to good control is proper identification of the pest. A successful control program includes a regular spray program, using the materials carefully as directed by the manufacturer. Thorough spraying of both the upper and lower leaf surfaces is important. Liquid sprays are generally more effective than dusts, especially for disease control. The following is a list of some of the most common problems.

Black spot

The most destructive pest of roses is black spot. This disease appears on the leaves as black spots. It causes the leaf to yellow and finally drop off. Severe defoliation will weaken the plant, reduce flowering and make the plant more subject to winter damage. It is most severe in wet seasons, and on plants in locations where there is little air movement. Wet leaf surface is necessary for its spread.

Plant your roses where air circulation is good. A site where the sun hits the plant early in the morning to help dry the foliage is also necessary. A preventative fungicide spray program is important to reduce infestation. Frequent spraying may be necessary during wet periods. Spray shortly after rains whenever possible.

Cleanliness around plants is also important, since the fungus may over winter on dead leaves on the ground and infections on the stem. Rains and splashing water spread spores from old leaves and stems. Remove all infected leaves as soon as you see black spots developing. This is especially helpful in early spring when the disease is just getting started.

Mildew 

A common rose disease which resembles a grayish, powdery film. Young leaves and tips are usually most seriously affected. Leaves become deformed and crumpled. The disease thrives in high humidity. Fungicide applications can give good curative control. Thorough coverage is important.

Brown Canker

Generally less serious than black spot or mildew is brown canker. Infection normally occurs in the summer. Infected canes may grow poorly or die. Best control is to cut out infected canes well below the lowest point of infection with a sterilized pruner.

Other rose diseases include rust, crown gall, anthracnose and petal blight. These are generally less common than the three previously listed.

“The fragrance always stays in the hand that gives the rose.”
Hada Bejar

INSECT MONITORING AND CONTROL

Aphids

Aphids are the most common insect pests of roses. Aphids are soft-bodied, green, brown or reddish colored. They are usually abundant on soft growing tips and on the stems immediately below the flower buds. Severe infestations may deform the leaves, stems or buds.

Several good insecticides are available for control. Begin spraying as soon as noticed in early spring. Summer infestations are usually not severe if spring control was obtained. Red Spider Mites 

Spider mites are difficult to observe. If you detect small translucent spider webs, you probably have mites. To confirm, take a white piece of paper and hold it under a branch and flick the branch. If you see tiny specks on the paper, you should apply a mitecide. Mites feed (suck) the leaves turning them yellowish and finally brown. Mites are most serious in hot, dry weather.

In severe infestations, apply mitecide every four days to eradicate the pest. Damage can be reduced by spraying the plants daily with a strong stream of water to wash some of the mites off the leaves.

Other insect pests

Many leaf or flower chewing insects attack roses. Generally these are not a serious problem and can be easily controlled by using an effective insecticide. They are easily identified by their damage, which occurs as holes and cuts in leaves or petals.

 

 

 

Name                     #         Type           Color                            Bloom                  Size

Abraham Darby            10       ENG    Apricot/Yellow              Large, dbl,                    Large

America                       10        CL       Coral                             Large, full                     Spread

Angel Face                   15        FL        Soft Lavender               Double                         Low

Anthony Meilland         15        FL        Golden Yellow              Large, double               Med.

Autumn Sunblaze          05        SB       Orange/Red                  Small                            Tree

Betty Boop                   10        FL       Yellow/Red edge          Large, single                 Med.

Blaze                            10        CL       Red                              Medium                       Large

Blushing Knock Out     00        SH       Pink                              Single                           Med.

Bonica                          20        SH       Pastel Pink                   Med, dbl                      Med.

Bridal Sunblaze             05        SB       White                           Small                            Tree

Candy Sunblaze            05        SB       Hot Pink                       Small                            Tree

Carefree Beauty           10        SH       Rich Pink                      Large, semi-dbl            Med.

Carefree Delight           35        SH       Carmine Pine                Single                           Med.

Carefree Sunshine         10        SH       Bright Yellow               Single                           Med.

Cherry Parfait               10        GR       Bright Pink                   Double                         Med.

Cherry Sunblaze           05        SB       Bright Pink                   Small                            Tree

Chrysler Imperial          10        HT       Crimson Red                Large                           Med.

Crimson Bouquet          10        GR       Bright Red                   Large, double               Tall

Day Breaker                 10        FL        Cream Blend               Double                         Med.

Desert Peace                10        HT       Scarlet/Gold                 Large, double               Tall      

Dolly Parton                 10        HT       Orange/Red                 Very Large                   Med.

Don Juan                      10        CL       Dark Red                     Large, full                     Med.

Double Delight              10        HT       Cream/Red                   Large, full                     Med.

Eden Climber                10        CL       Cream/Pink                  Large, full                     Med.

Eureka                          10        FL        Apricot                       Double                         Tall

Europeana                    10        FL        Dark Red                    Med, double                 Med.

First Prize                     10        HT       Pink                             Large, double               Med.

Fourth of July               10        CL       Red/White                    Med, double                 Fast

Gina Lollobrigida          10        HT       Yellow                         Large, full                     Large

Glowing Peace             10        GR       Amber/Orange             Double                         Med.

Golden Showers           10        CL       Yellow                         Med, open                   Tall

Golden Sunblaze           05        SB       Golden Yellow             Small                            Tree

Graham Thomas           10        ENG    Rich Yellow                  Med, cupped                Large

Guy de Maupassant      10        FL        Pink                             Large, cabbage             Med.

Heritage                       10        ENG    Shell Pink                     Med, cupped                Med.

Honey Perfume             10        FL       Apricot/Yellow            Double                         Med.

Hot Cocoa                   05        FL       Russett                         Double                         Round

Jean Giono                   10        HT      Apricot                         Large, cabbage             Tall

John F. Kennedy          10        HT      White                           Medium                        Tall      

Knock Out                   50        SH      Red                              Single                           Med.

Lavender Sunblaze       05        SB       Deep Lavender             Small                            Tree

Love and Peace            20        HT      Orange/Yellow             Very large                    Med.

Marmalade Skies          10        FL       Tangerine/Orange         Double                         Med.

Mary Rose                   10        ENG    Clear Pink                    Large, double               Large

McCartney Rose          20        HT       Deep Pink                    Large, double               Med.

Memorial Day              10        HT       Pink/Lavender              Double                         Med.

Michelangelo                10        HT       Canary Yellow             Very full                       Tall

Mister Lincoln              10        HT       Deep Red                     Large, double               Tall

Nearly Wild                  60        SH       Pink                             Large, single                 Med.

New Dawn                   10        CL       Shell Pink                     Med, double                 Tall

Olympiad                     10        HT       Red                              Large, double               Tall

Oregold                        10        HT       Yellow                         Large, full                     Med.

Othello                         10        ENG    Burgundy                      Large, double               Large

Peace                           10        HT      Yellow blend                Large, full                     Med.

Peter Mayle                  10        HT       Deep Fuchsia Pink        Double                         Tall

Playboy                        10        FL       Orange blend                Single                           Med.

Queen Elizabeth            10        GR       Pink                             Large, flat                     Tall

Red Eden                     05        CL       Red                              Double                         Tall

Salmon Sunblaze          05        SB       Salmon Pink                  Small                            Tree    

Scentimental                 15        FL        Red striped                   Double                         Med.

Secret                          10        HT       Soft Pink blend              Large, double               Med.

Starry Night                  10        SH       White                           Single clusters               Med.

The Fairy                      10        SH       Shell Pink                     Small, double                Small

Toulouse-Lautrec         20        HT       Yellow                          Large cabbage              Fast

Traviata                        10        HT       Clear Red                     Quartered                     Tall

Tropicana                     10        HT       Orange                         Medium, full                 Med.

White Dawn                 10        CL       White                           Medium, full                 Tall

Yves Piaget                  10        HT       Mauve/Pink                  Large, double               Med.

Zephirine Drouhin         10        CL       Rose/Pink                     Medium, double           Fast